Conventions relating to safe third countries are not explicitly mentioned in the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or in the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. Instead, their legality derives from Article 31 of the 1951 Convention, which states that a refugee should not be punished for illegal entry into a country when arriving directly from a country where he or she was threatened. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has itself warned against overly broad an interpretation of safe third country agreements, but acknowledges that they may be acceptable in certain circumstances.  Such ambiguities have led some jurists in Canada to question the legality of the Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement.  McDonald`s gave the government until the end of January to prepare for the end of the agreement because it understood that it was in the public interest not to immediately denounce the agreement. The agreement was signed on December 5, 2002 in Washington, D.C. by Bertin Côté (Deputy Head of Mission, Embassy of Canada) and Arthur E. Dewey (Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees and Migration, U.S.
Department of State). The government appealed McDonald`s decision, saying there would be « irreparable damage » to the rule of law and the public good if the border deal were overturned. Starting in February 2017, more and more refugees began crossing the Canadian border at locations other than official border inspection posts. In order to avoid the effects of the agreement, all refugees who place themselves at a border crossing point would be automatically returned to the United States in accordance with the provisions of the STCA.  Given that it is not illegal under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act or its rules to cross the border outside a port of entry, as long as the person immediately presents himself or herself to a Canada Border Services Agency official and STCA does not apply to rights outside a port of entry, it is possible that persons who are otherwise not authorised: to assert a right after irregular entry.  In some cases, these refugees have been amputated due to frostbite and concerns have been expressed that some refugees may freeze to death while crossing the border.  However, the increase in refugee applications occurred while the Agreement on Safe Third Countries was in force. . .