The second part concerns the UK`s future trade and security relations with the EU. It is just a political statement and it does not have much legal value. It is useful as a guideline and if the parties act in good faith, it would lead to trade in quotas and tariffs, but none of this is guaranteed. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially titled the UK`s withdrawal agreement from Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK)  which sets the conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the withdrawal agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. An important difference between Mr Johnson`s withdrawal agreement and Mrs May`s withdrawal agreement is that the environmental protection provisions have been removed and are now included in the amended policy statement. While the withdrawal agreement, once ratified, would constitute a legally binding treaty between the UK and the EU, the political declaration, as mentioned above, would not be binding, at least under international law. Therefore, under Mr Johnson`s proposal, the environmental standards provisions would not be binding on the United Kingdom. On 22 October 2019, the House of Commons agreed, by 329 votes to 299, to give a second reading to the revised withdrawal agreement (negotiated by Boris Johnson earlier this month), but when the accelerated timetable it had proposed did not receive the necessary parliamentary support, Johnson announced that the law would be overturned.  Therefore, the proposed new approach is not that of dynamic alignment in Mrs May`s withdrawal agreement (i.e.
with the United Kingdom, which effectively complies with EU environmental standards), but a notion of « non-regression » (i.e. the UK will not reduce its environmental standards, but will not be obliged to sign future environmental standards). This indicates that the UK`s future relationship with the EU will be much more flexible than expected – a free trade agreement unlike a full customs union and relatively free access to the EU internal market.